Alpha Acids: These are major components of the soft resins that provide the main bitter compounds associated with beer. The alpha acids content varies widely amongst hop varieties from levels of 3-4% in aromatic type hops to levels of 13-14% in the bitter hops.
Aroma: Aroma is a strong hop cultivar characteristic. There appears to be a general relationship between the type and heaviness of a hop aroma and the flavour and aromatic properties of beer.
Beta Acid: A soft resin component, beta-acids are not bitter in the natural form. Some of the oxidation products do provide bitterness, and the beta-acids can be chemically transformed into light stable bittering forms.
Bine: The long flexible stem of the hop plant itself
Cone Structure: The physical properties of hops cones. Light loose cones are more prone to shatter or break during harvest, while heavy dense cones are more robust and can handle a bit more jostling during harvest.
Disease Reaction: Most cultivars can display a wide range of reaction to various hop diseases. The greatest of which is the fungal disease downy mildew.
Dry Baling: Some cultivars are more difficult to dry than others and some tend to shatter more than others when being baled.
Lupulin: Varies in colour from a pale yellow to an intense gold. It is a strong characteristic of individual cultivars when they’ve reached maturity.
Maturity: A specific time during the hop harvest when a particular cultivar has reached its optimal maturity.
Oast: A kiln used for drying hops.
Storage: Cold storage and anaerobic conditions can delay hop oxidation. Some oxidation of essential oil components is necessary to produce compounds thought to be important in beer flavours; therefore, controlled aging is important for hops required for both bittering and aromatic properties.
Terroir: Is the expression of the unique characteristic synergies that are created as a result of the combination of a plant, region/geography, soil and climate.
Yield: The kiln dry weight of hops.